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用VB编写DirectX7.0游戏(上)




长沙 陈锐


  DirectX7.0终于出现了,同前面DirectX6相同,版本7也带了一个庞大(129M)的SDK开发库,同DirectX6 SDK库相比,DirectX7的SDK库提供了以下新的功能:

  * 对于Visual Basic的支持。用户可以使用类库在Visual Basic环境下开发基于DirectX的程序。

  * 提供更多DirectX3D立即模式(Immediate Mode)下的API函数,以支持DirectX7中新的3D特效,包括立体环境映射、顶点混合等。

  * DirectMusic支持DownLoadable Sound Level 2标准。

  * DirectInput支持8按键的游戏杆设备,同时支持Microsoft的力反馈摇杆。SDK库提供了读取力反馈效果文件的方法。同时提供了Force Editor程序来建立效果。

  对于VB爱好者来说,新的SDK库终于提供了完整的对VB的支持,现在终于可以使用Visual Basic来编写DirectX的程序了。

  一、DirectX SDK库的安装

  微软提供的SDK库是一个“重”达129M的dx7sdk.exe自解压缩文件,你可以上网下载或者从配套光盘上获得这个文件。双击文件就会弹出Winzip自解压缩对话框。在弹出的WinZip Self-Extract DK7SDK.EXE窗口中输入解压缩文件的路径,然后点击“Unzip”按钮解压缩SDK文件:

  要注意的是,dx7sdk.exe解压缩之后的体积有220M,硬盘比较紧张的读者在解压缩之前首先看看你的硬盘的容量是否足够。

  解压缩完毕之后,进入解压缩的目录中,双击Setup.exe文件就可以安装DirectX7.0 SDK文件了。安装是采用标准的InstallShield界面,玩Windows的读者应该对这种安装界面驾轻就熟,只要跟着安装提示一步一步地走就可以了。安装完毕之后,安装程序会在开始菜单中添加一个Microsoft DirectX 7 SDK的菜单,其中包括DirectX 7设置工具、VB范例和SDK Help等菜单项。

  现在开始进入VB,开始我们的DirectX的VB编程。在这里我们使用的是VB6企业版(英文)。Windows98中文版。

  打开VB,点击菜单中的 Project | References 项,在Object Library 列表中会有一项:DirectX 7.0 For Visual Basic Type Library 列表项,这个就是DirectX7.0 VB类库,选中该项,再选“ok”按钮,就可以将库加入工程文件中。

  二、DirectX编程初步

  1 DirectX7对象

  DirectX7对象是DirectX VB对象中其他所有对象的服务和起始对象,这个对象包含了建立诸如DirectDraw、 Direct3D、 DirectSound、 DirectInput等对象的方法。同时该对象还包含了一系列的三维控件顶点和距阵的操作函数以及一些DirectX系统函数。在VB中可以通过Dim...New来直接定义和初始化一个DirectX7对象,例如:

   Dim DirectX As New DirectX7

  当建立成功一个DirectX7对象之后,就可以使用该对象的DirectDrawCreate、Direct3DRMCreate等方法建立DirectDraw、Direct3D对象了。

  DirectX7对象范例1:获得系统中的DirectDraw和DirectSound驱动

  建立一个新的工程文件,点击菜单中的 Project | References 项,在Object Library 列表中选中DirectX 7.0 For Visual Basic Type Library 项后按确定按钮(以下的程序都需要这个步骤,后面将不再做说明)。然后在Form1中加入一个ListBox控件和四个CommandButton控件,在Form1的代码窗口中加入以下代码:

  Option Explicit

  

  Dim DirectX As New DirectX7

  Dim DDEnum As DirectDrawEnum

  Dim DDSound As DirectSoundEnum

  

  Private Sub Command1_Click()

   Dim Count, i As Integer

  

   Set DDEnum = DirectX.GetDDEnum

   Count = DDEnum.GetCount

   List1.Clear

   For i = 1 To Count

   List1.AddItem DDEnum.GetDescription(i)

   Next i

  

   Set DDEnum = Nothing

  End Sub

  

  Private Sub Command2_Click()

   Dim Count, i As Integer

  

   Set DDEnum = DirectX.GetDDEnum

   Count = DDEnum.GetCount

   List1.Clear

   For i = 1 To Count

   List1.AddItem DDEnum.GetName(i)

   Next i

   Set DDEnum = Nothing

  End Sub

  

  Private Sub Command3_Click()

   Dim Count, i As Integer

  

   Set DDSound = DirectX.GetDSEnum

   Count = DDSound.GetCount

   List1.Clear

   For i = 1 To Count

   List1.AddItem DDSound.GetDescription(i)

   Next i

  End Sub

  

  Private Sub Command4_Click()

   Dim Count, i As Integer

  

   Set DDSound = DirectX.GetDSEnum

   Count = DDSound.GetCount

   List1.Clear

   For i = 1 To Count

   List1.AddItem DDSound.GetName(i)

   Next i

  End Sub

  

  Private Sub Form_Load()

   Command1.Caption = “DirectDraw驱动描述”

   Command2.Caption = “DirectDraw驱动名称”

   Command3.Caption = “DirectSound驱动描述”

   Command4.Caption = “DirectSound驱动名称”

  End Sub

  

  Private Sub Form_Unload(Cancel As Integer)

   Set DirectX = Nothing

  End Sub

  运行程序,分别点击不同的按钮,在列表框中就会出现相应的设备驱动名和描述。

  2 DirectDraw7对象

  DirectDraw是一个与Windows 图形系统接口(GDI)相兼容的直接操作显示设备的软件接口。DirectDraw提供与硬件无关性的同时允许直接操作显存。程序只要使用一些基本的标准硬件约定,如:RGB及YUV色彩格式及解析度。你无须调用特殊的过程来使用显存块移动(Blitter)及调色板。使用DirectDraw,你可简单操作显存,完全使用各种硬件特性而不必理会各种不同硬件之间的差异。

  2.1 建立DirectDraw对象

  DirectDraw7对象是DirectX7中的DirectDraw对象,你需要首先建立一个DirectX7对象,然后使用该对象的DirectDrawCreate方法来建立DirectDraw7对象。例如:

   Dim DX As New DirectX7

   Dim DDraw As DirectDraw7

   Set DDraw = DX.DirectDrawCreate(“”)

  2.2 建立协作层

  当建立了一个DirectDraw对象之后,首先要设定DirectDraw的协作层。实现的方法是调用DirectDraw对象的SetCooperativeLevel函数。该函数的定义是:

   object.SetCooperativeLevel( hdl As Long, flags As CONST_DDSCLFLAGS)

  其中参数hdl指定程序的窗口句柄,参数flag决定程序运行的方式,函数调用

   DDraw.SetCooperativeLevel Me.hWnd, DDSCL_NORMAL

  将使程序运行于普通的协作层即窗口模式之下。在这种协作层你无法改变主平面调色板或进行页交换,因为程序可以使用多窗口。而函数调用

  DDraw.SetCooperativeLevel MainForm.hWnd, DDSCL_EXCLUSIVE Or _

   DDSCL_FULLSCREEN

  将使程序运行于全屏幕模式之下。在全屏幕协作模式之下你可以完全使用硬件的一切。在这个模式之下,你可以设置使用定义及动态调色板,改变显示分辨率及进行页交换。


用VB编写DirectX7.0游戏(下)




长沙 陈锐


  2.3 设置显示模式

  设置显示模式是使用SetDispalyMode函数实现的,函数的定义如下:

   object.SetDisplayMode( _

   w As Long, _

   h As Long, _

   bpp As Long, _

   ref As Long, _

   mode As CONST_DDSDMFLAGS

  其中参数w、h分别指定屏幕的宽度和高度,bpp指定屏幕显示的颜色位数,参数ref指定屏幕的刷新频率,设置为0使用显示驱动的缺省刷新频率,mode指定附加的参数。要获得系统支持的显示模式,可以使用DirectDraw对象的GetDisplayModesEnum函数来遍历所有支持的显示模式。

  2.4 建立平面对象

  一个平面或者说DirectDrawSurface对象是DirectDraw中图形显示和绘制对象。用户可以在DirectDrawSurface上贴位图、绘制图形,还可以直接操作DirectDrawSurface对象使用显存里的内容。利用DirectDraw对象的CreateSurface方法可以建立一个DirectDrawSurface7对象。例如:

  Public DDSFrontDesc As DDSURFACEDESC2

   With DDSFrontDesc

  .lFlags = DDSD_CAPS

  .ddsCaps.lCaps=DDSCAPS_PRIMARYSURFACE '

   End With

  Set DDSFront = DDraw.CreateSurface(DDSFrontDesc)

  也可以利用DirectDraw对象的CreateSurfaceFromFile函数或者CreateSurfaceFromResource函数建立一个DirectDrawSurface7对象,同时将图像文件或者资源文件中的图像装入建立的DirectDrawSurface中。如果上面的函数调用成功,函数将返回一个DirectDrawSurface对象。如果在设定DirectDraw对象的协作层时将其设置为全屏幕模式的话,为了改善图像性能,可以设立一个主平面和若干个屏下缓冲平面,首先在屏下平面中生成图像,然后将图像翻转到主平面上,这样可以有效地避免图像闪烁。

  下面通过一个具体的范例来对DirectDraw进行说明:这个范例建立一个全屏幕的DirectDraw对象,通过操作主显示平面的显示内存在屏幕上显示火焰字的特效,然后按Enter键可以将DirectDraw平面中的图形保存起来。程序的具体实现如下:

  建立一个新的工程文件,点击菜单中的 Project | Reference 选项,打开Object Library 列表窗口,将DirectX 7.0 For Visual Basic Type Library 加入工程文件。将Form1的Name属性改变为MainForm,在MainForm中加入一个PictureBox控件,将其的Visible属性设置为False。然后在MainForm的代码窗口中加入以下代码:

  Private Sub Form_KeyPress(KeyAscii As Integer)

   Dim sRect As RECT

   Dim hdcSrc As Long

   If KeyAscii = 27 Then

   ExitLoop = True

   'End

   ElseIf KeyAscii = vbKeyReturn Then

  DDSFront.BltToDC Picture1.hDC, sRect, sRect

   With Picture1

   '获得与主显示平面兼容的图形设备句柄

   hdcSrc = DDSFront.GetDC

   '保存图像

   Set .Picture = SaveTohBmp(hdcSrc, 0, 0, 640, 480)

   '释放图形句柄

   DDSFront.ReleaseDC hdcSrc

   SavePicture Picture1, “c:\a.bmp”

   End With

   End If

  End Sub

  

  Public Sub Form_Paint()

   BlitRect.Right = DDSBackDesc.lWidth

   BlitRect.Bottom = DDSBackDesc.lHeight

   DDSFront.Blt BlitRect, DDSBack, BlitRect, DDBLT_WAIT

  End Sub

  在工程文件中加入一个Module文件,这个文件中DirectDraw操作做出了定义,在这个Module中加入以下代码:

  Option Explicit

  Public DX As New DirectX7

  Public DDraw As DirectDraw7

  Public DDSFront As DirectDrawSurface7

  Public DDSFrontDesc As DDSURFACEDESC2

  Public DDSBack As DirectDrawSurface7

  Public DDSBackDesc As DDSURFACEDESC2

  Public Clipper As DirectDrawClipper

  Dim Pict() As Byte

  Dim AlphaRect As RECT

  Dim X As Long, Y As Long

  Dim Temp As Long

  Dim Index As Long

  Dim Index2 As Long

  Dim Pos As Long

  Dim PosPlus1 As Long

  Dim PosPlus2 As Long

  Dim PosPlus3 As Long

  Public Pal(255) As PALETTEENTRY

  Public Palette As DirectDrawPalette

  Public BlitRect As RECT

  Public FullSize As Boolean

  Public ExitLoop As Boolean

  Dim Accum As Long

  Dim Msg(9) As String

  Dim Counter As Long

  Dim MsgIndex As Long

  Dim bDrawText As Boolean

  Dim lastTime As Long

  Dim XPos As Long, YPos As Long

  Dim wait As Long

  Dim Angle As Single

  Dim Flag As Boolean

  Dim Count As Long

  Dim CurModeActiveStatus As Boolean

  Dim bRestore As Boolean

  Dim Mode As Boolean

  Private Sub Main()

   InitializeDX

  '初始化Picture1以获得DirectDraw界面图像

   With MainForm.Picture1

   .Width = 640 * Screen.TwipsPerPixelX

   .Height = 480 * Screen.TwipsPerPixelY

   End With

  DDSBack.SetForeColor RGB(255, 255, 255)

   MainForm.Font.Name = “宋体”

   DDSBack.SetFont MainForm.Font

  Msg(0) =“一个显示火焰字的演示”

  Msg(1) =“演示”

  Msg(2) =“利用VB阵列”

  Msg(3) =“对显示内存”

  Msg(4) =“进行直接存取”

  Msg(5) =“{Esc}键退出”

   '设置8位的调色板

   For Index = 0 To 84

   Pal(Index + 1).red = Index * 3 + 3

   Pal(Index + 1).green = 0

   Pal(Index + 1).blue = 0

  

   Pal(Index + 86).red = 255

   Pal(Index + 86).green = Index * 3 + 3

   Pal(Index + 86).blue = 0

  

   Pal(Index + 171).red = 255

   Pal(Index + 171).green = 255

   Pal(Index + 171).blue = Index * 3 + 3

   Next

  Set Palette = DDraw.CreatePalette(DDPCAPS_8BIT _ Or DDPCAPS_ALLOW256, Pal())

   DDSFront.SetPalette Palette

  AlphaRect.Right = DDSBackDesc.lWidth - 1

  AlphaRect.Bottom=DDSBackDesc.lHeight- 1

  

   DDSBack.Lock AlphaRect, DDSBackDesc, DDLOCK_WAIT, 0

  

   DDSBack.GetLockedArray Pict()

   For X = 0 To 639

   For Y = 0 To 479

   Pict(X, Y) = 0

   Next

   Next

   'Corresponding unlock

   DDSBack.Unlock AlphaRect

   While Not ExitLoop

   Mode = ExModeActive

   bRestore = False

   Do Until ExModeActive

   DoEvents

   bRestore = True

   Loop

   DoEvents

   If bRestore Then

   bRestore = False

   DDraw.RestoreAllSurfaces

   End If

   DDSBack.Lock AlphaRect, DDSBackDesc, DDLOCK_WAIT, 0

   DDSBack.GetLockedArray Pict()

   For Y = 0 To 479

   Pict(0, Y) = 0

   Pict(639, Y) = 0

   Next

   For X = 0 To 639

   Pict(X, 477) = Rnd * 220 + 35

   Pict(X, 478) = Rnd * 220 + 35

   Pict(X, 479) = Rnd * 220 + 35

   Next

   Accum = 0

   For X = 1 To 638

   For Y = 0 To 477

   Accum = (Accum + Pict(X, Y + 1) _

   + Pict(X, Y + 2) _

   + Pict(X + 1, Y + 1) _

   + Pict(X - 1, Y + 1)) \ 5

   If Accum < 0 Then

   Accum = 0

   ElseIf Accum > 255 Then

   Accum = 255

   End If

   Pict(X, Y) = Accum

   Next

   Next

   For X = 0 To 639

   Pict(X, 0) = 0

   Pict(X, 1) = 0

   Next

   X = Rnd * 639

   For Y = 50 To 439

   Next

   'Unlock

   DDSBack.Unlock AlphaRect

  If DX.TickCount() - lastTime > wait Then

   If Counter = 0 Then

   bDrawText = True

   Counter = 1

   XPos = Rnd * 200

   YPos = 300 + Rnd * 140

   wait = 400

   ElseIf Counter = 1 Then

   MsgIndex = MsgIndex + 1

   If MsgIndex > 5 Then MsgIndex = 0

   bDrawText = False

   Counter = 0

   wait = 2000

   End If

   lastTime = DX.TickCount

   End If

  

   'Draw Text to the backbuffer

   If bDrawText Then

   On Error Resume Next

   DDSBack.DrawText XPos, YPos, Msg(MsgIndex), False

   On Error GoTo 0

   End If

  

   MainForm.Form_Paint

   Wend

   TerminateDX

   End

  End Sub

  Function ExModeActive() As Boolean

   Dim TestCoopRes As Long

  TestCoopRes = DDraw.TestCooperativeLevel

   Select Case TestCoopRes

   Case DDERR_NOEXCLUSIVEMODE

   ExModeActive = False

   Case DD_OK

   ExModeActive = True

   End Select

  End Function

  Public Sub InitializeDX()

  MainForm.Left = 0

  MainForm.Top = 0

  MainForm.Height =640 * Screen.TwipsPerPixelY

  MainForm.Width = 480 * Screen.TwipsPerPixelX

  MainForm.Show

   '建立DirectDraw对象

   Set DDraw = DX.DirectDrawCreate(“”)

   '设定DirectDraw对象的协作层

   DDraw.SetCooperativeLevel MainForm.hWnd, DDSCL_EXCLUSIVE Or DDSCL_FULLSCREEN ' DDSCL_NORMAL

   '设定显示模式位640×480×8位颜色

   DDraw.SetDisplayMode 640, 480, 8, 0, DDSDM_DEFAULT

  

   '设定DDSFrontDesc为主平面

   With DDSFrontDesc

  .lFlags = DDSD_CAPS

  .ddsCaps.lCaps = DDSCAPS_PRIMARYSURFACE 'Or DDSCAPS_SYSTEMMEMORY

   End With

   '设定DDSBackDesc为后台缓冲平面

   With DDSBackDesc

  .ddsCaps.lCaps = DDSCAPS_SYSTEMMEMORY

  .lFlags = DDSD_CAPS Or DDSD_WIDTH Or DDSD_HEIGHT

  .lWidth = 640

  .lHeight = 480

   End With

   '建立平面

   Set DDSFront = DDraw.CreateSurface(DDSFrontDesc)

   Set DDSBack = DDraw.CreateSurface(DDSBackDesc)

   Set Clipper = DDraw.CreateClipper(0)

   Clipper.SetHWnd MainForm.hWnd

   DDSFront.SetClipper Clipper

   DDSBack.SetClipper Clipper

   DoEvents

   Exit Sub

  ERRoUT:

   If Not (DDraw Is Nothing) Then

   DDraw.RestoreDisplayMode

   DDraw.SetCooperativeLevel MainForm.hWnd, DDSCL_NORMAL

   DoEvents

   End If

   MsgBox “无法对DirectDraw进行初始化 ”+Chr(13)+“也许你的显示卡不支持 640×480×8 显示模式 ”

   End

  End Sub

  Public Sub TerminateDX()

   '子程序TerminateDX回复原来的显示模式并且释放所有的DirectDraw有关对象

   DDraw.RestoreDisplayMode

   DDraw.SetCooperativeLevel MainForm.hWnd, DDSCL_NORMAL

   DoEvents

   Set Clipper = Nothing

   Set DDSBack = Nothing

   Set DDSFront = Nothing

   Set DDraw = Nothing

   Set DX = Nothing

  End Sub

  在工程文件中再加入一个Module,这个Module主要定义与图像保存相关的操作,在建立的Module中加入以下代码:

   Option Explicit

  Option Base 0

  Private Type PALETTEENTRY

   peRed As Byte

   peGreen As Byte

   peBlue As Byte

   peFlags As Byte

  End Type

  

  Private Type LOGPALETTE

   palVersion As Integer

   palNumEntries As Integer

   palPalEntry(255) As PALETTEENTRY ' Enough for 256 colors.

  End Type

  

  Private Type GUID

   Data1 As Long

   Data2 As Integer

   Data3 As Integer

   Data4(7) As Byte

  End Type

  Private Const RASTERCAPS As Long = 38

  Private Const RC_PALETTE As Long = &H100

  Private Const SIZEPALETTE As Long = 104

  

  Private Declare Function CreateCompatibleDC Lib “GDI32” (ByVal hDC As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function CreateCompatibleBitmap Lib “GDI32” (ByVal hDC As Long, ByVal nWidth As Long, ByVal nHeight As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function GetDeviceCaps Lib “GDI32” (ByVal hDC As Long, ByVal iCapabilitiy As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function GetSystemPaletteEntries Lib “GDI32” (ByVal hDC As Long, ByVal wStartIndex As Long, ByVal wNumEntries As Long, lpPaletteEntries As PALETTEENTRY) As Long

  Private Declare Function CreatePalette Lib “GDI32”(lpLogPalette As LOGPALETTE) As Long

  Private Declare Function SelectObject Lib “GDI32”(ByVal hDC As Long, ByVal hObject As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function BitBlt Lib “GDI32”(ByVal hDCDest As Long, ByVal XDest As Long, ByVal YDest As Long, ByVal nWidth As Long, ByVal nHeight As Long, ByVal hdcSrc As Long, ByVal XSrc As Long, ByVal YSrc As Long, ByVal dwRop As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function DeleteDC Lib “GDI32”(ByVal hDC As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function GetForegroundWindow Lib “USER32” () As Long

  Private Declare Function SelectPalette Lib “GDI32”(ByVal hDC As Long, ByVal hPalette As Long, ByVal bForceBackground As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function RealizePalette Lib “GDI32” (ByVal hDC As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function GetWindowDC Lib “USER32” (ByVal hWnd As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function GetDC Lib “USER32"(ByVal hWnd As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function GetWindowRect Lib “USER32”(ByVal hWnd As Long, lpRect As RECT) As Long

  Private Declare Function ReleaseDC Lib “USER32”(ByVal hWnd As Long, ByVal hDC As Long) As Long

  Private Declare Function GetDesktopWindow Lib “{USER32"() As Long

  

  Private Type PicBmp

   Size As Long

   Type As Long

   hBmp As Long

   hPal As Long

   Reserved As Long

  End Type

  Private Declare Function OleCreatePictureIndirect Lib “olepro32.dll” (PicDesc As PicBmp, RefIID As GUID, ByVal fPictureOwnsHandle As Long, IPic As IPicture) As Long

  

  Public Function SaveTohBmp(ByVal hdcSrc As Long, ByVal LeftSrc As Long, _

   ByVal TopSrc As Long, ByVal WidthSrc As Long, ByVal HeightSrc As Long) As Picture

  

   Dim hDCMemory As Long

   Dim hBmp As Long

   Dim hBmpPrev As Long

   Dim r As Long

   Dim hPal As Long

   Dim hPalPrev As Long

   Dim RasterCapsScrn As Long

   Dim HasPaletteScrn As Long

   Dim PaletteSizeScrn As Long

   Dim LogPal As LOOGPALETTE

   '

   '建立一个内存图形设备句柄

  hDCMemory=CreateCompatibleDC(hdcSrc)

  '建立一个bitmap并保存到hDCMemory中

  hBmp = CreateCompatibleBitmap(hdcSrc, WidthSrc, HeightSrc)

   hBmpPrev = SelectObject(hDCMemory, hBmp)

   ' Get screen properties.

   RasterCapsScrn = GetDeviceCaps(hdcSrc, RASTE图CAPS) 'rRaste

  ' capablies.

   HasPaletteScrn = RasterCapsScrn And RC_PALtTTEic1 ' Palette

  ' support.

   PaletteSizeScrn = GetDeviceCaps(hdcSrc, SIZEPALETTE) ' Size of

  ' palette.

   If HasPaletteScrn And (PaletteSizeScrn = 256) Then

   '建立系统调色板的拷贝

   LogPal.palVersion = &H300

   LogPal.palNumEntries = 256

   r = GetSystemPaletteEntries(hdcSrc, 0, 256, LogPal.palPalEntry(0))

   hPal = CreatePalette(LogPal)

   hPalPrev = SelectPalette(hDCMemory, hPal, 0)

   r = RealizePalette(hDCMemory)

   End If

  

   '将屏幕图形拷贝到内存图形设备句柄中

   r = BitBlt(hDCMemory, 0, 0, WidthSrc, HeightSrc, hdcSrc, LeftSrc, TopSrc, vbSrcCopy)

  

   hBmp = SelectObject(hDCMemory, hBmpPrev)

  

   If HasPaletteScrn And (PaletteSizeScrn = 256) Then

   hPal = SelectPalette(hDCMemory, hPalPrev, 0)

   End If

  

   '释放图形设备句柄

   r = DeleteDC(hDCMemory)

   Debug.Print r

  

   '调用CreateBitmapPicture函数从指定的bitmap对象和调色板中建立一个picture对象

   Set SaveTohBmp = CreateBitmapPicture(hBmp, hPal)

  End Function

  Public Function CreateBitmapPicture(ByVal hBmp As Long, ByVal hPal As Long) As Picture

   Dim r As Long

   Dim Pic As PicBmp

   Dim IPic As IPicture

   Dim IID_IDispatch As GUID

  

   '填充IDispatch界面

   With IID_IDispatch

   .Data1 = &H20400

   .Data4(0) = &HC0

   .Data4(7) = &H46

   End With

  

   '填充Pic结构

   With Pic

   .Size = Len(Pic) ' Length of structure.

   .Type = vbPicTypeBitmap ' Type of Picture (bitmap).

   .hBmp = hBmp ' Handle to bitmap.

   .hPal = hPal ' Handle to palette (may be null).

   End With

  

   '建立Picture对象

   r = OleCreatePictureIndirect(Pic, IID_IDispatch, 1, IPic)

  

   '返回Picture对象

   Set CreateBitmapPicture = IPic

  End Function

  运行程序,在屏幕上会出现一些火焰字的特效,按Enter键可以将屏幕保存到“c:\a.bmp”中,按Esc键退出程序回到Windows。

  在上面的程序中,程序首先建立一个DirectDraw对象,然后设置该对象的协作层为全屏协作模式,接下来设置显示模式为640×480×8位颜色,建立一个前台DirectDrawSurface对象和一个后台缓冲DirectDrawSurface对象,建立和设置DirectDrawClipper对象。

  在主程序段中,程序首先对前台绘图平面的调色板(DirectDrawPalette

  )对象进行操作以改变显示的文字的颜色,然后对后台缓冲绘图平面进行字节操作,以产生文字弥散的效果,然后再将后台缓冲绘图平面翻转到前台。当用户按下Enter键之后,程序获得与前台绘图平面相兼容的图形设备句柄,然后再调用Windows API函数将绘图平面内存中的内容保存到Windows位图文件中。

  上面粗略地介绍了DirectX7 SDK的新特性以及初步的DirectDraw编程,希望对大家能有所帮助。以上的程序在Windows98、VB6.0下运行通过。